1.2.2 Information

            Compare to data, information paints a bigger picture. It is data with relevance and purpose (Bali et al 2009). Ackoff (1999) defines information as the data that has been given meaning by way of relational connection. This "meaning" can be useful, but does not have to be. Essentially information is found in answers to questions that begin with such words as who, what, where, when, and how many (Ackoff, 1999).

                 Davenport & Prusak (2000) have explained following processes of converting data into information:

  1. Condensation – items of data are summarized into a more concise form and unnecessary depth is eliminated
  2. Contextualization – the purpose or reason for collecting the data in the first place is known or understood
  3. Calculation - data is processed and aggregated in order to provide useful information
  4. Categorization – is a process for assigning a type or category to data
  5. Correction – is a process for removal of errors

                  They explained that the human brain assists in contextualizing the available data. It means that information is a data which is organized for some purposes and have some relevance and meaning. In other words information is a collection of data and associated explanations, interpretations, and other textual material concerning a particular object, event, or process (Davenport & Prusak, 2000). ICT is usually used to convert data into information, particularly in larger organizations that generate large amounts of data across multiple departments and functions (Edmondson, 1999).