6.7 Carayannis's KM Model

6.7 Carayannis KM Model

          Elias Carayannis (1999) has proposed a KM model in which knowledge management is considered as a conjunction of information technology and managerial and organizational cognition. In this model IT is considered as a value-adding technological infrastructure, managerial / organizational cognition as the "…capability for individual and collective reasoning, learning, emoting and envisioning," and Knowledge Management as "…a socio-technical system of tacit and explicit business policies and practices"(Carayannis, 1999: 219). The model attempts to define the systems and structures, both real and virtual, which would allow an organization to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of its KM processes.

          He proposed an “Organizational Knowledge Network” (OK Net)  a flexible, adaptive and endowed with the capacity to learn, learn how-to-learn, and learn to learn-how-to-learn from system users and stakeholders, team and organization customers, suppliers, complementors, and competitors in a co-opetitive manner through explicit and tacit, active and passive interaction. He further argued that the OK Net could act as a catalyst for the creation of trans-disciplinary/ trans-functional organizational knowledge clusters within and across communities of practice.

          OK Net is proposed to be a technology platform for designing and testing an organizational knowledge management network for the support of monitoring, capturing, measurement, and enrichment of organizational cognition in eight stage process:

  1. Identify: Determine core competencies, sourcing strategy, and knowledge domains.
  2. Capture: Formalize exiting knowledge.
  3. Select: Assess knowledge relevance, value and accuracy. Resolve conflicting knowledge.
  4. Store: Represent corporate memory in knowledge Repository with various knowledge schemata.
  5. Share: Distribute knowledge automatically to users based on interest and work. Collaborate on knowledge work through virtual teams.
  6. Apply: Retrieve and use knowledge in making decision, solve problems, automating or supporting work, job aids, and training.
  7. Create: Discover new knowledge through research, experimenting, and creative thinking.
  8. Sell: Develop and market new knowledge-base products and services.

          Carayannis specifies a number of concepts to lay its foundation and among them, the key elements of meta-cognition, meta-learning and meta-knowledge - a familiar theme in the organizational learning community.  Carayannis states that the relationship between knowledge (K) and meta-Knowledge (MK) is critical in Knowledge Management. He defines a 2 X 2 matrix which, “…consists of successive knowledge cycles where an individual or an organization can transition or traverse 4 stages of awareness and ignorance" (Carayannis, 1999:224). Four possible states of organizational Knowledge Management obtain:

  1. image available in printed copy of the bookIgnorance of ignorance (K, MK)
  2. Ignorance of awareness (K, MK)
  3. Awareness of ignorance (K, MK)
  4. Awareness of awareness (K, MK)

          Organizations may thereby plot their situation(s) in one of these cells and a development effort is aimed at managing the transitions from one state to another. The ideal is awareness—of knowledge, of ignorance—and the willingness to move from the latter to the former. Transitions may be accomplished via two paths: connectivity or interactivity. Connectivity is enabled by information technology and held to be the efficiency-driven path. Interactivity denotes socio-technical phenomena and emphasizes the tacit / explicit interplay in human interaction. Managed correctly, it engenders not only a spiral of increasing wisdom (meta-knowledge), but also learning how to learn.

          Carayannis claims that the OK Net and the OCS offer an organizational knowledge architecture for optimal “impedance matching” between organizational knowledge capabilities and needs and managerial cognition function and process. In this way organization can better match their knowledge capabilities and needs with their managerial cognition functions and processes.