A Pragmatic Approach for Implementing Knowledge Management in Pakistani Organizations using Open Source Technologies

Dr. M. A. Pasha & Dr. S. Pasha latest reserch paper

doi: 10.5120/7638-0721

M Anwar-ur-rehman Pasha and Shaheen Pasha. Article: A Pragmatic Approach for Implementing Knowledge Management in Pakistani Organizations using Open Source Technologies.

International Journal of Computer Applications 49(7):10-18, July 2012. Published by Foundation of Computer Science, New York, USA. BibTeX


In today's world, knowledge management is considered as a key to organizational growth and competitiveness. Pakistan is among those developing countries where the importance of knowledge management has been realized but its practices have failed to get sufficient attention. This paper has presented a pragmatic approach to answer the research question how Pakistani organizations can implement technology driven KM initiatives to enhance their productivity and competitiveness. Free and Open Source Technologies based a recursive framework for a phase-wise KM implementation has been proposed. Six key factors have also been identified to make KM initiative successful. Recommendations have also been made to make KM implementation smooth and effective. [Read Full Text]


  1. Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. 1995 The Knowledge-Creating Company. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  2. Davenport, T. H. and Prusak, L. 1998 Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.
  3. Saeed, T. , Tayyab, B. , Anis-Ul-Haque, M. , Ahmad, H. M. , and Chaudhry, A. U. 2010. Knowledge Management Practices: Role of Organizational Culture, In Proceedings of ASBBS Annual Conference, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1027-1036.
  4. Quintas, P. , Lefrere, P. and Jones, G. "Knowledge management: A strategic agenda. Journal of Long Range Planning, Vol. 30, No. 3, 1997, pp. 385-391.
  5. Valkokari, K. and Helander, N. "Knowledge management in different types of strategic SME networks", Management Research News, Vol. 30, No. 8, 2007, pp. 597-608.
  6. Salo, N. "The Implications of Knowledge Management Sustainability for Leadership inan Organization: An Exploration and Analysis of Leadership Theories and Knowledge Management Practices in Bangwita Flores, Indonesia", Journal of NTT Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2009, pp. 95-135.
  7. Pasha, M. A. and Pasha, S. 2012. Essentials of Knowledge Management: Concepts, Theories and Practices. Innovators Knowledge Services, Retrieved from http://www. innovators. edu. pk/node/139
  8. Halawi, L. A. , McCarthy, R. V. andAronson, J. E. "An Empirical Investigation of Knowledge Management Systems ' Success", Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 48, No. 3, 2007, pp. 121-136.
  9. Kothari, A. , Hovanec, N. , Hastie, R. andSibbald, S. "Lessons from the business sector for successful knowledge management in health care: A systematic review", BMC Health Serv Res, Vol. 11, 2011, pp. 173.
  10. Malik, K. P. and Malik, S. "Value Creation Role of Knowledge Management: a Developing Country Perspective",The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2008, pp. 41 – 48
  11. Ali, B. 2008 Critical Success Factors for Effective Knowledge Management in Corporate Sector (Pakistan). Ph. D. Thesis, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  12. Bano, S. , Kashif-ur-Rehman, and Khan, M. A. "Study of Factors that Impact Knowledge Management Fit in Corporate Sector of Pakistan", Far East Journal of Psychology and Business, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2010, pp. 15-31.
  13. Abass, F. , Hayat, M. , Shahzad, A. , and Riaz, A. "Analysis of Knowledge Management in the Public Sector of Pakistan", European Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2011, pp. 471-478.
  14. BenMoussa, C. "Barriers to Knowledge Management: A Theoretical Framework and a Review of Industrial Cases, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 54, 2009, pp. 906-917.
  15. Creswell, J. W. 2007 Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach (2nd ed. ). ThousandOaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  16. Alavi, M. and Leidner, D. E. "Review: Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management Systems: Conceptual Foundations and Research Issues", MIS Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1999, pp. 107-136.
  17. McQueen, R. 1998. Four Views of Knowledge and Knowledge Management, In Proc. FourthAmericas Conference on Information Systems, Baltimore, Maryland, pp. 609–611.
  18. Carlsson, S. A. , El Sawy, O. A. , Eriksson, I. and Raven, A. 1996. Gaining Competitive Advantage Through Shared Knowledge Creation: In Search of a New Design Theory for Strategic Information systems, In Proc. Fourth European Conference on Information Systems, Lisbon, Portugal.
  19. Wilson, B. 1984 Systems: Concepts, Methodologies and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.
  20. Zack M. H. "Managing codified knowledge", Sloan Management Review, Vo. 40, No. 4, 1999, pp. 45-58.
  21. Andriessen, D. G. "Stuff or love; how metaphors direct our efforts to manage knowledge in organizations", Knowledge Management Research and Practice, Vol. 6, 2008, pp. 5–12.
  22. Kucza, T. 2001. Knowledge Management Process & Model, Technical Research Centre Of Finland.
  23. Nonaka, I. "A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation", Organization Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1994, pp. 14-37.
  24. Huber, G. "Organizational learning: the contributing processes and the literatures", Organization Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1991, pp. 88-115.
  25. Sanghani, P. 2009. Knowledge Management Implementation: Holistic Framework Based On Indian Study, In Proceeding of the Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems.
  26. Bakar, O. 1998 Classification of Knowledge in Islam: A Study in Islamic Philosophies of Science, The American University in Cairo Press.
  27. Polanyi, M. 1966 The Tacit Dimension, Doubleday, Garden City, NY.
  28. Botha, A. , Kourie, D. and Snyman, R. 2008Coping with Continuous Change in the Business Environment, Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management Technology, Chandice Publishing Ltd.
  29. Alexander, P. A. and Judy, J. E. "The interaction of domain-specific and strategic knowledge in academic performance", Review of Educational Research, Vol. 58,1988, pp. 375–404.
  30. de Jong, T. , and Ferguson-Hessler, M. "Types and qualities of knowledge", Educational Psychologist, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1996, pp. 105- 113.
  31. Granovetter, M. "Economic Action and Social Structure: the Problem of Embeddedness", American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 91,1985, pp. 481-93.
  32. Badaracco, J. L. 1991 The Knowledge Link: How Firms Compete Through Strategic Alliances, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
  33. Blackler, F. " Knowledge, Knowledge Work and Organizations: An Overview and Interpretation", Organization Studies, Vol. 6, 1995, pp. 1021–1046.
  34. Collins, H. "The structure of knowledge", Social Research, Vol. 60,1993, pp. 95-116.
  35. Wiig, K. M. 2000. Knowledge Management: An Emerging Discipline Rooted in a Long History. In Knowledge Horizons: The Present and the Promise of Knowledge Management, C. Despres and D. Chauvel (Eds. ), (pp. 3-26). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  36. Todd, R. S. and Southon, G. 2000 Knowledge Management: Key to Partnership, In Learning Outcomes and Resourcing a Learning Community. International Association of School Librarianship, pp. 143-154.
  37. Afiouni, F. "Human resources management and knowledge management: A road map toward improving organizational performance", Journal of American Academy of Business, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2007.
  38. Prusak, L. 1999. What's up with knowledge management? In The knowledge management yearbook, 1999-2000. J. W. Cortadaand J. A. Woods (Eds. ),Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  39. Pee, L. G. and Kankanhalli, A. "A Model of Organisational Knowledge Management Maturity Based on People, Process, and Technology", Journal of Information & Knowledge Management, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2009, pp. 79-99.
  40. Dougherty, V. "Knowledge is about people, not databases", Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 31, No. 7, 1999, pp. 262 – 266.
  41. Edvinsson, L. "Some perspectives on intangibles and intellectual capital", Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2000, pp. 12 – 16.
  42. Tannenbaum, S. I. , Alliger, G. M. 2000 Knowledge Management: Clarifying the Key Issues, ISBN 0967923913. IHRIM.
  43. Rastogi, P. N. "Knowledge Management and Intellectual Capital - The new virtuous reality of competitiveness", Human Systems Management, Vol. 19, No. 1,2000, pp. 39-49.
  44. Probst, G. 2002Managing Knowledge, Building Blocks for Success. Wiley. West Sussex, England.
  45. Heisig, P. , Mertins, K. and Vorbeck J. 2001 Knowledge Management. Concepts and Best practices in Europe. (2nd Ed. ) Springer-Verlog. Berlin Heidelberg. New York.
  46. McElroy, M. 2002The New Knowledge Management, Complexity, Learning, and Sustainable Innovation. Butterworth-Heineman. Burlington, England.
  47. Anderson, A. and The APQC 1996 The Knowledge Management Assessment Tool, Arthur Anderson and the American Productivity & Quality Center.
  48. Demarest, M. "Understanding knowledge management", Long Range Planning, Vol. 30, No. 3, 1997, pp. 374-384.
  49. Little, A. D. "Knowledge management: reaping the benefits", Prism, Second Quarter, 1998.
  50. Delphi 1998 Delphi on Knowledge Management: Research and Perspectives on Today's Knowledge Landscape, Delphi Group. (www. delphigroup. com).
  51. Wijnhoven, F. "Designing organizational memories: concept and method", Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1998, pp. 29-55.
  52. Pan, S. , and Scarbrough, H. "A socio-technical view of knowledge-sharing at Buckman laboratories", Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1998, pp. 55-66.
  53. Lee, J. H. and Kim, Y. G. "A stage model of organizational knowledge management: a latent content analysis", Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 20, 2001, pp. 299-311.
  54. Bhatt, G. D. "Knowledge management in organizations: examining the interaction between technologies, techniques, and people", Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2001.
  55. Lee, H. and Choi, B. "Knowledge enablers, processes and organizational performance: An integrated view and empirical examination", Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2003, pp. 179-228.
  56. McInerney, C. R. and Koenig, M. E. D. "Knowledge Management (KM) Processes in Organizations: Theoretical Foundations and Practice", Synthesis Lectures on Information Concepts, Retrieval, and Services, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2011, pp. 1-96.
  57. Gupta, A. K. and Govindarajan, V. "Knowledge Management's Social Dimension: Lessons From Nucor Steel", Sloan Management Review, Vol. 42, No. 1,2000, pp. 71-81.
  58. Bali, R. , Wickramasinghe, N. , and Lehaney B. 2009 Knowledge Management Primer, London :Routledge.
  59. McCampbell, A. S. , Clare, L. M. and Gitters, S. H. "Knowledge management: the new challenge for the 21st century", Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1999, pp. 172-179.
  60. Claver-Corte´ s, E. , Zaragoza-Sa´ez, P. and Pertusa-Ortega, E. "Organizational structure features supporting knowledge management processes", Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2007, pp. 45-57.
  61. Al-Mabrouk, K. "Critical Success Factors Affecting Knowledge Management Adoption: A Review of the Literature", Innovations in Information Technology, IEEE Xplore, 2007, pp. 1-6.
  62. Martin, B. "Knowledge Management within the Context of Management: An Evolving Relationship", Singapore Management Review, Vol. 22, No. 2,2000, pp. 17-37.
  63. Wenger, E. 1998 Communities of practice: learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  64. Moon, H. K. and Park, M. S. "Effective Reward Systems for Knowledge Sharing: Facilitating Knowledge Flow at Samsung Life Insurance",Knowledge Management Review, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2002, pp. 22-25.
  65. Brelade, S. and Harman, C. "Using Human Resources to Put Knowledge to Work", Knowledge Management Review, Vol. 3, No. 1,2000, pp. 26-29.
  66. Martin, M. , Myers L. A. , and Murdock, D. "Facilitating Change Through KM at Premier Inc: Piggy-Backing Knowledge Management Initiatives onto Existing Initiatives", Knowledge Management Review, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2000,pp 20-23.
  67. Penrose, E. 1959 The Theory of The Growth of The Firm, Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
  68. Drucker, P. F. 1993 Post-capitalist Society. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  69. BenMoussa, C. "Barriers to Knowledge Management: A Theoretical Framework and a Review of Industrial Cases, World Academy of Science", Engineering and Technology, Vol. 54, 2009, pp. 906-917.
  70. AMR Research 2007 The Knowledge Management Spending Report,2007–2008.