Hidden Curriculum

Teaching in 21stCentury

Teacher Training Workshop for Computing Educators

By Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha

Delivered at University of Sargodha on 06 Sep, 2012

Hidden Curriculum


  • Phillip Jackson (1968), coined the term, argued that features like norms, values, dispositions, belief systems and social and behavioral expectations have little to do with educational goals, but are essential for satisfactory progression through school.
  • Durkheim(1922) comments that "Society can survive only if there exists among its members a significant degree of homogeneity; education perpetuates and reinforces this homogeneity by fixing in the child, from the beginning, the essential similarities collective life demands".
  • Jackson believes that hidden curriculum deals with the elements of socialization embedded in the curriculum, the school, and classroom life and imparted to students through daily routines, curricular content, and social relationships, but are not part of the formal curricular content.
  • D. Peters and M. Peterson (1987) have defined hidden curriculum in higher education as unofficial expectations, unintended learning outcomes, implicit messages, or as a curriculum created by the students. They have pointed out some structural elements of a program results in a hidden curriculum that faculty unconsciously teach and students unconsciously learn. These elements include classroom's social structure, teachers' exercise of authority, the rules governing teacher-student' relationship, teaching learning activities, and socio-cultural and structural barriers in the institution.
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