Learning: Bloom's Taxonomy

Teaching in 21stCentury

Teacher Training Workshop for Computing Educators

By Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha

Delivered at University of Sargodha on 06 Sep, 2012

Learning: Bloom's Taxonomy


  • Knowledge
    • Behavior descriptions: recall or recognize information
    • Activities: multiple-choice test, recount facts or statistics, recall a process, rules, definitions; quote law or procedure arrange,
    • Action Verbs: define, describe, label, list, memorize, recognize, relate, reproduce, select, state
  • Comprehension
    • Behavior descriptions: understand meaning, re-state data in one's own words, interpret, extrapolate, translate
    • Activities: explain or interpret meaning from a given scenario or statement, suggest treatment, reaction or solution to a given problem, create examples or metaphors
    • Action Verbs: explain, reiterate, reword, critique, classify, summarise, illustrate, translate, review, report, discuss, re-write, estimate, interpret, theorise, paraphrase, reference, example
  • Application
    • Behavior descriptions: use or apply knowledge, put theory into practice, use knowledge in response to real circumstances
    • Activities: put a theory into practical effect, demonstrate, solve a problem, manage an activity
    • Action Verbs: use, apply, discover, manage, execute, solve, produce, implement, construct, change, prepare, conduct, perform, react, respond, role-play
  • Analysis
    • Behavior descriptions: interpret elements, organizational principles, structure, construction, internal relationships; quality, reliability of individual components
    • Activities: identify constituent parts and functions of a process or concept, or de-construct a methodology or process, making qualitative assessment of elements, relationships, values and effects; measure requirements or needs
    • Action Verbs: analyse, break down, catalogue, compare, quantify, measure, test, examine, experiment, relate, graph, diagram, plot, extrapolate, value, divide
  • Synthesis (create/build)
    • Behavior descriptions: develop new unique structures, systems, models, approaches, ideas; creative thinking, operations
    • Activities: develop plans or procedures, design solutions, integrate methods, resources, ideas, parts; create teams or new approaches, write protocols or contingencies
    • Action Verbs: develop, plan, build, create, design, organise, revise, formulate, propose, establish, assemble, integrate, re-arrange, modify
  • Evaluation
    • Behavior descriptions: assess effectiveness of whole concepts, in relation to values, outputs, efficacy, viability; critical thinking, strategic comparison and review; judgementrelating to external criteria
    • Activities: review strategic options or plans in terms of efficacy, return on investment or cost-effectiveness, practicability; assess sustainability; perform a SWOT analysis in relation to alternatives; produce a financial justification for a proposition or venture, calculate the effects of a plan or strategy; perform a detailed and costedrisk analysis with recommendations and justifications
    • Action Verbs: review, justify, assess, present a case for, defend, report on, investigate, direct, appraise, argue, project-manage


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