Introduction to Inclusive Education Course Material

Introduction to Inclusive Education
A Course Material Compiled by Prof. Dr. Shaheen Pasha
Division of Education, University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan

Course Introduction
Education not only imparts knowledge, develops skills and inculcates values, but also develop human capital which breeds, drives and sets technological innovation and economic growth.  For these reasons education has always been considered as one of the key factors responsible of socio-economic development, growth and progress of any society.  Although “Education” has become an important metaphor of our society, there is no agreed upon definition of the term. For some people it is the delivery of knowledge, skills, and information from teachers to students. For some people it is a process in which and by which the knowledge, characters and behavior of the human being are shaped and molded. Yet, we all agree that all students should have equal access to educational recourses, social environment, and job opportunities that help individuals to become independent and positive contributor.  This task becomes more challenging as students come to school with diverse background and abilities.  To meet these challenges, an understanding of inclusive education is very important for educators, parents, and community leaders. This course is aimed to achieve this target.

Course Objectives
After completing this course, students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of relevant federal and state legislation, regulation, and policies that pertain to the development of educational programs for students with special needs, including major categories of disabilities.
  • Discuss the concept of least restrictive alternatives and examine the research and rationale(s) for inclusive education.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the role and responsibilities of the general educator in the design of Individual Education Programs (IEP), including identification, referral, IEP development, and implementation.
  • Discuss principles of educational assessment for special populations, including testing bias, sensitivity to cultural and language factors, and the importance of adaptations for English Language Learners (ELL).
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics and effective applications of collaboration, including working with families and paraprofessionals in the design and implementation of assessment and instructional programs for students with disabilities.
  • Analyze classroom and student needs in organizing and planning instruction for special populations, including the design of accommodations and the use of assistive technologies.

Course Contents


Topics Useful Readings

Module 1

  • Introduction to Inclusive Education

Introduction to Inclusive Education

Journey to Excellence - An introduction to inclusion: Achieving success for all learners


Case study
Introduction and mainstreaming of Inclusive Education in Papua New Guineas national system


1.1 Historical And Theoretical Basis Of Inclusive Education

Inclusive Education: Past, Present and Future



1.2  Inclusive Education and Effective
Classroom Practices

Best Practices



1.3 Inclusive education and teacher education


Module 2

2.Perceptions of Disability
2.1  Public Perceptions of Disabled People

2.2 Challenging ‘mainstream’ perceptions of disability

2.3 Past and Present Perceptions Towards Disability: A Historical Perspective


Other parents’ perceptions of disability and inclusion in early
childhood education: Implications for the teachers’ role in creating inclusive communities

Module 3

3.Assessing Student Needs
3.1Assessing Student Needs: The Process of Assessment

3.2 Assessing Students’ Needs for Assistive Technology

3.3 Individualized Education Plan Procedures
3.3.1 Individual Education Plans

3.3.2 Guidelines On The Individual Education Plan Process

Assessing Student Needs

Useful material

The Individual Education Plan (Resource Guide)

Individualized Education Program Planning Process

Module 4

4.Types of Disabilities

4.1 Low Incidence Disabilities;

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4.2 High Incidence Disabilities

4.3 Other Students with Special Needs

4.4 Strategies for Independent Living
Independent Living

Useful Material

Children with Special Educational Needs

Disability awareness

Module 5

5. Classroom strategies for helping learners with exceptional needs
Comparison of Differentiated and Traditional Classrooms

Teaching Students with Special Needs

Strategies for Students with Special Needs
Rethinking of education

The Regular Classroom as Battleground for Inclusive Special Needs Education

5.1 Differentiating classroom learning

What Is Differentiated Instruction?

Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom

5.2 Role of a powerful, meaningful curriculum in differentiating learning

Differentiating the curriculum

Differentiating curriculum for gifted students

5.3 Role of the student and the teacher in a differentiated classroom
Differentiated Instruction Facilitator’s Guide


Module 6

Instructional Adaptations & Modification
A Guide to Adaptations and Modifications

Curriculum Modifications & Adaptations – SPAN
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations

Adaptations, Accommodations and Modifications


Module 7

Evaluating Student Learning

Assessing Student Learning


Module 8

Responding to Student Behavior
Responding To Student At-Risk Behaviors

Responding to bad behavior

Managing Inappropriate Student Behavior
Responding to Disruptive or
Threatening Student Behavior:


Module 9

Support services for exceptional learners
Learners Who Are Exceptional



Suggested Readings
Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. (2005).  Including Students with Special Needs: A Practical Guide for Classroom Teachers (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Van Brummelen, H. (2009). “How do we embrace and support diverse learners?”, pp. 205-226 (Chapter 7) in Walking with God in the classroom, 3rd ed. Colorado Springs, CO: Purposeful Design Publications.

Tomlinson, C. A. & Germundson, A. (2007). Teaching as jazz. Educational Leadership 64 (8), 27-31.

Carolan, J. & Guinn, A. (2007). Differentiation: Lessons from master teachers. Educational Leadership 64(5), 44-47.

Tomlinson, C. A. (2008). The goals of differentiation. Educational Leadership 66 (3), 26-30.

Tomlinson, C. A. (2003). Deciding to teach them all. Educational Leadership 61 (2), 6-11.

Cameron, L. (2001).  Teaching Languages to Young Learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (pp.21-35)

Gunawardena, C., Wilson, P., & Nolla, A. (2003). Culture and online education. In M. Moore W. & Anderson (Eds)  Handbook of distance education (pp. 753-775). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Jule, A. (2002). Speaking their sex: A study of gender and linguistic space in an ESL Classroom. TESL Canada Journal, (19)2, 37 - 51.